Investigation of Optimum Conditions for Synthesis of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Nanoparticles by Refluxing

Mijoung Kim, Yongjei Lee, Jung Yup Yang, Minjae Lee, Yoonmook Kang, Pilho Huh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) has been proven to be a better candidate as a light absorber layer in thin-film solar cells. However, most processes require high vacuum and high temperature during deposition, which results in significant loss of materials and is not applicable to a flexible substrate. Solution processes often involve low processing temperature and cheap precursor, can be used with flexible substrates, and offer the possibility of roll-to-roll manufacturing, potentially reducing manufacturing costs for the module. Here, we have experimentally investigated the optimum synthesis conditions for CIGSe nanoparticles fabricated by using a facile and a non-vacuum reflux method for low-temperature solution processes. By employing various reflux conditions by changing the temperature of heating mantle, single-phase CIGSe nanoparticles were synthesized at 200 °C. On the other hand, synthesized products with an impure multi-phase were formed at heating mantle temperatures lower than 200°C. XRD measurements confirmed that the Ga content of the CIGSe nanoparticles increased with increasing heating mantle temperature. In addition, the average diameter of the CIGSe nanoparticles increased with increasing reaction time from 5 min to 30 min at a fixed heating mantle temperature of a 200 °C. The optical band gap is calculated by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra, decreased from 1.69 eV to 1.29 eV with increasing reaction time due to the increased CIGSe nanoparticles size. From our results, we can conclude that the characteristics of the CIGSe nanoparticles can be effectively controlled by using simple growth conditions, thereby providing many advantages for the fabrication of absorber layers for use in CIGSe solar cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)527-532
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of the Korean Physical Society
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Mar 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research is supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) under grant number 2018M3C1B9088540. This research was also supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2019R1A2C4070248).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020, The Korean Physical Society.


  • Cu(In,Ga)Se nanoaprticles
  • Refluxing method
  • Thin-film solar cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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