K3PO4-catalyzed carboxylation of amines to 1,3-disubstituted ureas: A mechanistic consideration

Young Seop Choi, Heehwan Kim, Seung Hoon Shin, Minserk Cheong, Yong Jin Kim, Ho Gyeom Jang, Hoon Sik Kim, Je Seung Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


K3PO4 was found to effectively catalyze the carboxylation of amines by CO2, producing corresponding 1,3-disubstituted ureas in high yields and selectivities. X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of the solid mixture, recovered from the carboxylation of n-butylamine, revealed that K3PO4 was completely transformed into KH2PO4 and KHCO3. Mechanistic and computational studies suggested that the high activity of K3PO4 could be attributed to the synergy effect exerted by the co-presence of KHCO3 and KH2PO4, generated from the interaction of K3PO4 with CO2 and water.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)317-324
Number of pages8
JournalApplied Catalysis B: Environmental
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jan

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the “ Fusion Research Program for Green Technologies ( NRF-2012M3C1A1054497 )” through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by Ministry of Education, Science and Technology .


  • Amines
  • Carbon dioxide
  • Carboxylation
  • Substituted ureas

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • General Environmental Science
  • Process Chemistry and Technology


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