The 12 February 2013 nuclear test conducted by the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea stands out among other nuclear tests because it produced unusually large transversal motions. Previous studies found various percentages of isotropic components of the seismic moment tensor (MT), which opens up an important question about the reliability of the methods and assumptions we routinely use to recover the seismic MT in the point source approximation. Of particular interest is the data noise model that can be utilized to represent the uncertainty associated with the recorded data. If the noise is not accounted for, this may result in a range of unwanted effects such as overfitting waveform data, and, in turn, it may lead to erroneous conclusions. We thus scrutinize the analyses of the seismic MTof this explosion by performing a thorough analysis of the source depth and time utilizing newly developed Earth structure models to invert seismograms at regional distances at different frequency bands. In addition, we estimate the solution uncertainty within a hierarchical Bayesian framework that allows accounting for noise in the data. Our results show that the resulting MTof this event contains an expectedly large isotropic component (about 70%) and a dip-slip faulting.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Marija Mustać was supported by an Australian National University Research Scholarship and A.E. Ringwood Supplementary Scholarship. Seongryong Kim was funded by the Korean Meteorological Administration (KMA) Research and Development Program under Grant Number KMIPA2017-4010. The research was also supported by the U.S.A. Department of Defence (DoD), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) under Grant Number FA9453-13-C-0268. The authors thank B. L. N. Kennett and Junkee Rhie for valuable discussions, Associate Editor Eric Chael and two anonymous reviewers that helped improve the original article.
© Seismological Society of America.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geochemistry and Petrology