Leaching behavior of cesium, strontium, cobalt, and europium from immobilized cement matrix

Ja Young Goo, Bong Ju Kim, Myunggoo Kang, Jongtae Jeong, Ho Young Jo, Jang Soon Kwon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Numerous low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes are generated from the decommissioning processes of nuclear power plants; these wastes are immobilized to prevent the release of radionuclides under disposal conditions. In this study, we investigated the leaching behavior of Cs, Sr, Co, and Eu, which are common in immobilized decommissioning wastes. Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was used as an immobilization agent. During the test, leaching of the nuclides occurred in the order of Cs, Sr, Co, and Eu and decreased over time. The results showed that 41.4% of the total Cs leached over 90 days, although the other elements leached in quantities less than 1.5%. CaCO3 was precipitated by the release of cementitious materials, indicating carbonation of the leachate. The leachability indexes in all cases exceeded the acceptable criteria (>6). The results of the present study suggest that OPC can be effectively used as a binding material to immobilize nuclides (Cs, Sr, Co, and Eu) contained in decommissioning wastes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8418
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Sept

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the R&D program of MOTIE/KEIT (20193210100120, Development of waste acceptance criteria application and WCP requirements for disposal of the NPP decommissioning radioactive waste solidification treatment) and Korea Spent Nuclear Fuel (iKSNF) and National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (Ministry of Science and ICT, MSIT) (No. 2021M2E1A1085202).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Carbonation
  • Decommissioning radioactive waste
  • Immobilization
  • Leaching
  • Portland cement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Instrumentation
  • General Engineering
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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