Ligand chemistry for surface functionalization in MXenes: A review

Sungmin Jung, Ujala Zafar, L. Satish Kumar Achary, Chong Min Koo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Surface chemistry of MXenes is of significant interest due to its potential to control their final optoelectronic and physicochemical properties, and address the oxidation and dispersion stabilities of MXenes. Surface chemistry of MXenes can be manipulated by either MXene synthesis via chemical etching or post surface functionalization method. Although numerous reviews have explored MXene synthesis methods, there has been a lack of focus on post surface functionalization. This review aims to fill this gap by summarizing recent advancements in the MXene surface functionalization chemistry, and elucidating mechanisms, properties, and future perspectives of functionalized MXenes. We discuss organic ligand molecules, such as organic salts, catechols, phosphonates, carboxylates, and silanes, which can be employed to surface-functionalize MXene through covalent or non-covalent bond interaction. This comprehensive review offers valuable insights for scientists and engineers in utilizing functionalized MXenes across diverse applications, including EMI shielding, energy storage, electronics, optoelectronics, and sensors. (Figure presented.).

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere12395
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Oct
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by grants from the Basic Science Research Program (2021M3H4A1A03047327 and 2022R1A2C3006227) through the National Research Foundation of Korea, funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT, and Future Planning; the Fundamental R&D Program for Core Technology of Materials and the Industrial Strategic Technology Development Program (20020855), funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Energy, Republic of Korea. This study was also partially supported by a grant (CRC22031‐000) from Korea Institute of Science and Technology and the National Research Council of Science & Technology (NST), funded by the Korean Government (MSIT). Furthermore, this study was partially supported by a start‐up fund (S‐2022‐0096‐000) and the Postdoctoral Research Program of Sungkyunkwan University (2022).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors. EcoMat published by The Hong Kong Polytechnic University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.


  • MXenes
  • covalent and non-covalent bonds
  • ligand chemistry
  • oxidation and dispersion stabilities
  • surface functionalization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


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