Light-Directed Soft Mass Migration for Micro/Nanophotonics

Kwangjin Kim, Haedong Park, Kyung Jin Park, Sung Hun Park, Hyeon Ho Kim, Seungwoo Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)


In this review, it is argued that soft mass migrations, driven and guided by spatially controlled photopolymerization and photochromic isomerization (also called directional plastic deformation or photofluidization of azobenzene materials), offer toolsets for optical engineers to develop various micro/nanophotonic materials and devices that are not readily available with conventional lithographic methods and self-assembly techniques. In this direction, the two seemingly different concepts of (i) photopolymerization and (ii) photochromic-isomerization-driven mass migrations are tied together, and then recent technological advances in these two fields are summarized, including diffractive optical elements (DOEs), electro-optic DOE devices, colorimetric sensors, biologically inspired optics, plasmonic devices and near-field studies, and exceptional point optics. This review establishes the technological viability of light-directed soft mass migration for the overall evolving field of micro/nanophotonics and its research perspectives.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1900074
JournalAdvanced Optical Materials
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Aug

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
K.K. and H.P. contributed equally to this work. The preparation of this review was supported by the Samsung Research Funding & Incubation Center for Future Technology of Samsung Electronics (Project No. SRFC-MA1801-04) and the KU-KIST School Project.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim


  • azobenzene materials
  • holography
  • photoisomerization
  • photopolymerization
  • soft mass migration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


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