Lipase-catalysed enrichment of γ-linolenic acid from evening primrose oil in a solvent-free system

Ramiro Baeza-Jiménez, Da Som No, Christina Otero, Hugo S. García, Jeom Sig Lee, In Hwan Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


The enrichment of γ-linolenic acid (GLA) was carried out in a solvent-free system by lipase-catalysed esterification of free fatty acids from evening primrose oil (EPO-FA) and 1-butanol (BtOH). The lipase employed to conduct this study was a free preparation of Candida rugosa. Variables evaluated were: substrate molar ratio (1:4, 1:6, 1:8, 1:10 and 1:12, EPO-FA:BtOH), temperature (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 °C), and enzyme loading (5, 10, 15 and 20 %, based on the total weight of substrates). GLA was highly enriched in the non-esterified fatty acid fraction since C. rugosa showed very low selectivity for this fatty acid. We were able to increase the content of GLA to ca. 70 wt.% under the following optimal conditions: 30 °C, 10 % enzyme loading and a 1:10 molar ratio (EPO-FA:BtOH), after 24 h. An additional set of experiments was conducted whereby the amount of water was controlled by addition of molecular sieves to the reaction mixture. The latter experiments produced a higher GLA concentrate (83.74 wt.%), under the optimal conditions described above and by adding 10 % molecular sieves (based on the total weight of substrates) after 36 h.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1147-1153
Number of pages7
JournalJAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jul

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments This research was supported by the Rural Development Administration (Korea, project number PJ009247) and CSIC (Spain) for the JAE pre-doctoral fellowship to author Baeza.


  • 1-Butanol
  • Candida rugosa lipase
  • Enrichment
  • Esterification
  • Evening primrose oil
  • γ-Linolenic acid (GLA)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Organic Chemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Lipase-catalysed enrichment of γ-linolenic acid from evening primrose oil in a solvent-free system'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this