The development of an efficient analytical method for the reliable detection and identification of the biosynthetic intermediates found in microbial cultures, which usually produce complex intermediates of the metabolites of interest, is essential for further biosynthetic investigations. This study developed a simple and highly selective method for detecting the biosynthetic intermediates involved in the FK506 pathway of Streptomyces clavuligerus KCTC 10561BP involving a cleanup procedure using a solid-phase extraction technique to provide reliable extraction of FK506-related compounds from a cell culture broth and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) to separate and detect the FK506-related intermediates at concentrations as low as 0.2 μg/L in the broth. This method enabled the analytical profiling of the intermediates formed during the biosynthesis of FK506 in this S. clavuligerus strain, which produced FK506 as a main product. Eight FK506 intermediates-FK520, 37,38-dihydroFK506, prolylFK506, 9-decarbonyl-9-hydroxylFK506, 9-deoxoFK506, desmethylFK520, prolylFK520, and 9-deoxoFK520-were identified. This is the first report of the LC-ESI-MS/MS characterization of a wide range of FK506 analogs from a bacterial fermentation broth. The protocol employed in this study may be useful for estimating the structure of the metabolites without the need for a time-consuming isolation process and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by a Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF) NRL Program grant funded by the Korean government (MEST, R0A-2008-000-20030-0); a KOSEF grant funded by the Korean government (MEST, R11-2005-008-00000-0, M10749000201-08N4900-20110); the 21C Frontier Microbial Genomics and Applications Center Program, Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology, Republic of Korea; and the Marine and Extreme Genome Research Center Program of the Ministry of Land, Transportation, and Maritime Affairs, Republic of Korea.
- FK506 profiling
- Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology