Localization using GPS and VISION aided INS with an image database and a network of a ground-based reference station in outdoor environments

Ji Hoon Choi, Yong Woon Park, Jae Bok Song, In So Kweon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


GPS/INS integrated systems do not guarantee robustness and accuracy of localization, because GPS has vulnerability to external disturbances. However, the overall performance and reliability of the system can be significantly improved by fusing multiple sensors with a different operating principle. In outdoor environments where GPS may be blocked, there are many features compared to the open space and these features can provide much information for UGV localization. Thus, this paper proposes an improved localization algorithm based on the hierarchical federation of three measurement layers, i.e., GPS, INS, and visual localization, to overcome the shortcomings of GPS/INS integrated systems. The proposed algorithm automatically switches the operation modes according to GPS status and a network of a ground-based reference station. A vocabulary tree with SURF is used in the visual localization method. In the data fusion of visual localization and INS, an asynchronous and time-delayed data fusion algorithm is presented because visual localization is always time-delayed compared with INS. By using DGPS to obtain the reference position under the dynamic conditions of the reference station, the restrictions of the conventional DGPS are overcome and all UGVs within WiBro communication range of the reference station can accurately estimate the position with a common GPS. The experiment results with a predefined path demonstrate enhancement of the robustness and accuracy of localization in outdoor environments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)716-725
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Control, Automation and Systems
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Aug

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
__________ Manuscript received November 8, 2009; revised August 5, 2010 and March 28, 2011; accepted May 2, 2011. Recommended by Editorial Board member Sooyeong Yi under the direction of Editor Hyun Seok Yang. This work was partly supported by the Dual-Use Technology Program of DAPA/DUTC and MIC/IITA in Korea Ji-Hoon Choi is with the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, 5, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713, Korea, and he is also with UGV Technology Directorate at Agency for Defense Development, Yuseong P. O. BOX 35-5, Daejeon 305-600, Korea (e-mail: ji_hoon_choi@add.re.kr).


  • Image matching
  • localization
  • operation mode
  • reference station
  • vocabulary tree

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications


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