Long-term trend analysis of CO in the Yongsan district of Seoul, Korea, between the years 1987 and 2013

Azmatullah Khan, Jan E. Szulejko, M. S. Bae, Zang Ho Shon, Jong Ryeul Sohn, J. W. Seo, E. C. Jeon, Ki Hyun Kim

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3 Citations (Scopus)


In this study, the long-term trend in atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) concentration was analyzed using the CO levels measured (intermittently) at an air quality monitoring (AQM) station in Seoul, Korea, between the years 1987 and 2013. Temporal trends in CO were analyzed on an annual and seasonal basis in reference to other important air pollutants such as methane (CH4), particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), mercury (Hg), and ozone (O3). The annual mean of CO for the entire period was 0.93 ± 0.22 ppm. CO levels were reduced by 83% from 3.25 ± 0.78 ppm (1987) to 0.51 ± 0.31 ppm (2013). Its relative reduction was compared over three periods chosen arbitrarily as period 1 (fast reduction, 1987–1988), period 2 (intermediate reduction, 1999–2000), and period 3 (slow reduction, 2004–2013). The concentrations of CO were strongly correlated with others (e.g., SO2, NO, NO2, O3, and Hg), suggesting the effects of similar source processes (e.g., fuel combustion). The reduction in its level was marginally consistent with the decreasing trend in the total CO column concentration in Seoul by the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) satellite between 2000 and 2013, indicating decreasing anthropogenic CO emissions (despite increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions). The rapid relative reduction of CO in period 1 and the subsequent slower but moderate reduction thereafter appear to reflect the effects of both enforcement of administrative regulations and advances in emissions control technologies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)988-996
Number of pages9
JournalAtmospheric Pollution Research
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Sept

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by a grant from the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (No. 2016R1E1A1A01940995). This research was also supported by the Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement grant (16SCIP-B07689-03).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 Turkish National Committee for Air Pollution Research and Control

Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Air pollution
  • Carbon monoxide
  • Long-term analysis
  • Seoul
  • Temporal
  • Yongsan

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Atmospheric Science


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