Low Area and Low Power Threshold Implementation Design Technique for AES S-box

Junhyun Song, Kyeongho Lee, Jongsun Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Threshold implementation (TI) is a promising coun-termeasure against side-channel attacks (SCA) in the presence of glitches. However, the hardware implementation of TI in S-box needs a large number of D flip-flops to synchronize intermediate signals, which results in a large silicon area and power consump-tion overhead. In this paper, we present the low area and low power TI design technique for advanced encryption standard (AES) S-box. In the proposed approach, instead of using D flip-flops, low-cost synchronization circuits such as customized tri-state XOR gates, tri-state buffers, and D latches are efficiently adopted with critical path replica (CPR) circuits. As a result, the proposed TI S-box implementation with 28nm CMOS process shows up to 33.7% area and 44.3% power savings. The security of the proposed TI AES S-box against side-channel attacks is also verified with test vector leakage assessment (TVLA) tests.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1
Number of pages1
JournalIEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:


  • Advanced En-cryption Standard (AES)
  • Clocks
  • D flip-flops
  • Delays
  • Flip-flops
  • glitches
  • Latches
  • Logic gates
  • Power demand
  • propagation delay
  • S-box
  • Synchronization
  • synchronization
  • Threshold Implementation (TI)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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