LPSRS: Low-Power Multi-Hop Synchronization Based on Reference Node Scheduling for Internet of Things

Mahmoud Elsharief, Mohamed A.Abd El-Gawad, Haneul Ko, Sangheon Pack

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Time synchronization is one of the most fundamental problems on the internet of things (IoT). The IoT requires low power and an efficient synchronization protocol to minimize power consumption and conserve battery power. This paper introduces an efficient method for time synchronization in the IoT called low-power multi-hop synchronization (LPSRS). It employs a reference node scheduling mechanism to avoid packet collisions and minimize the communication overhead, which has a big impact on power consumption. The performance of LPSRS has been evaluated and compared to previous synchronization methods, HRTS and R-Sync, via real hardware networks and simulations. The results show that LPSRS achieves a better performance in terms of power consumption (transmitted messages). In particular, for a large network of 450 nodes, LPSRS reduced the total number of transmitted messages by 53% and 49% compared to HRTS and R-Sync, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2289
JournalEnergies
Volume15
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Mar 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
significantly decreased the number of messages, resulting in significant power savings. LPSRS into a real wireless sensor network with different configurations and an extensive We constructed LPSRS into a real wireless sensor network with different configurations simulation with large-scale networks. According to the experimental results, LPSRS re- and an extensive simulation with large-scale networks. According to the experimental quires fewer messages than prior approaches such as R-Sync and HRTS. It can decrease results, LPSRS requires fewer messages than prior approaches such as R-Sync and HRTS. the number of transmitted messages by around 26% and 35% compared to R-Sync, and It can decrease the number of transmitted messages by around 26% and 35% compared to this benefit, in turn, reduces LPSRS’s energy use. In addition, we can consider LPSRS as a R-Sync, and this benefit, in turn, reduces LPSRS’s energy use. In addition, we can consider semi-centralized synchronization protocol, as some tasks are completed by the sink node LPSRS as a semi-centralized synchronization protocol, as some tasks are completed by the and other tasks are completed locally by each node. Therefore, LPSRS is very convenient sink node and other tasks are completed locally by each node. Therefore, LPSRS is very for those applications in which the network topology is recognized, e.g., smart metering. convenient for those applications in which the network topology is recognized, e.g., smart mAuthoreterinContributions:g. M.E., M.A.A.E.-G. and S.P. came up with the concept for this study; M.E., H.K. and S.P. developed the research technique; M.E., M.A.A.E.-G. and H.K. carried out the experiments Author Contributions: M.E., M.A.A.E.-G. and S.P. came up with the concept for this study; M.E., H.K. and S.P. developed the research technique; M.E., M.A.A.E.-G. and H.K. carried out the experiments and simulations; M.E., H.K. and S.P. evaluated the data and wrote the paper. All Funding: This research was supported in part by Korea University and in part by the MSIT (Ministry of Science and ICT), Korea, under the ITRC (Information Technology Research Center) support program (IITP-2021-0-01810) supervised by the IITP (Institute for Information and Communications (Ministry of Science and ICT), Korea, under the ITRC (Information Technology Research Center) support program (IITP-2021-0-01810) supervised by the IITP (Institute for Information and Institutional Review Board Statement: Not applicable.

Funding Information:
This research was supported in part by Korea University and in part by the MSIT (Ministry of Science and ICT), Korea, under the ITRC (Information Technology Research Center) support program (IITP-2021-0-01810) supervised by the IITP (Institute for Information and Communications Technology Planning and Evaluation).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.

Keywords

  • HRTS
  • IoT
  • LPSRS
  • Low power
  • R-sync
  • Scheduling
  • Time synchronization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Optimization
  • Energy (miscellaneous)
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Fuel Technology
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

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