Most glioblastomas frequently recur at sites of radiotherapy, but it is unclear if changes in the tumor microenvironment due to radiotherapy influence glioblastoma recurrence. Here, we demonstrate that radiation-induced senescent glioblastoma cells exhibit a senescence-associated secretory phenotype that functions through NFκB signaling to influence changes in the tumor microenvironment, such as recruitment of Ly6G+ inflammatory cells and vessel formation. In particular, Ly6G+ cells promote conversion of glioblastoma cells to glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) through the NOS2-NO-ID4 regulatory axis. Specific inhibition of NFκB signaling in irradiated glioma cells using the IκBα super repressor prevents changes in the tumor microenvironment and dedifferentiation of glioblastoma cells. Treatment with Ly6G-neutralizing antibodies also reduces the number of GSCs and prolongs survival in tumor-bearing mice after radiotherapy. Clinically, a positive correlation exists between Ly6G+ cells and the NOS2-NO-ID4 regulatory axis in patients diagnosed with recurrent glioblastoma. Together, our results illustrate important roles for Ly6G+ inflammatory cells recruited by radiation-induced SASP in cancer cell dedifferentiation and tumor recurrence.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2019, The Author(s).
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology