Triboelectrification is a phenomenon that generates electric potential upon contact. Here, we report a viral particle capable of generating triboelectric potential. M13 bacteriophage is exploited to fabricate precisely defined chemical and physical structures. By genetically engineering the charged structures, we observe that more negatively charged phages can generate higher triboelectric potentials and can diffuse the electric charges faster than less negatively charged phages can. The computational results show that the glutamate-engineered phages lower the LUMO energy level so that they can easily accept electrons from other materials upon contact. A phage-based triboelectric nanogenerator is fabricated and it could produce a76 V and a5.1 μA, enough to power 30 light-emitting diodes upon a mechanical force application. Our biotechnological approach will be useful to understand the electrical behavior of biomaterials, harvest mechanical energy, and provide a novel modality to detect desired viruses in the future.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support by Tsinghua Berkeley Shenzhen Institute and the Samsung Display Inc. (Fund 63020).
© 2021 American Chemical Society.
- energy harvesting
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Mechanical Engineering