M13 Virus Triboelectricity and Energy Harvesting

Han Kim, Ju Hyuck Lee, Ju Hun Lee, Byung Yang Lee, Byoung Duk Lee, Kento Okada, Seungwook Ji, Jihwan Yoon, Jong Hyuk Lee, Seung Wuk Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Triboelectrification is a phenomenon that generates electric potential upon contact. Here, we report a viral particle capable of generating triboelectric potential. M13 bacteriophage is exploited to fabricate precisely defined chemical and physical structures. By genetically engineering the charged structures, we observe that more negatively charged phages can generate higher triboelectric potentials and can diffuse the electric charges faster than less negatively charged phages can. The computational results show that the glutamate-engineered phages lower the LUMO energy level so that they can easily accept electrons from other materials upon contact. A phage-based triboelectric nanogenerator is fabricated and it could produce a76 V and a5.1 μA, enough to power 30 light-emitting diodes upon a mechanical force application. Our biotechnological approach will be useful to understand the electrical behavior of biomaterials, harvest mechanical energy, and provide a novel modality to detect desired viruses in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6851-6858
Number of pages8
JournalNano Letters
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Aug 25

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 American Chemical Society.


  • bioelectricity
  • bionanotechnology
  • energy harvesting
  • triboelectricity
  • virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering


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