Machine-learning-based coordination of powered ankle–foot orthosis and functional electrical stimulation for gait control

Suhun Jung, Jae Hwan Bong, Keri Kim, Shinsuk Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study proposes a novel gait rehabilitation method that uses a hybrid system comprising a powered ankle–foot orthosis (PAFO) and FES, and presents its coordination control. The developed system provides assistance to the ankle joint in accordance with the degree of volitional participation of patients with post-stroke hemiplegia. The PAFO adopts the desired joint angle and impedance profile obtained from biomechanical simulation. The FES patterns of the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles are derived from predetermined electromyogram patterns of healthy individuals during gait and personalized stimulation parameters. The CNN-based estimation model predicts the volitional joint torque from the electromyogram of the patient, which is used to coordinate the contributions of the PAFO and FES. The effectiveness of the developed hybrid system was tested on healthy individuals during treadmill walking with and without considering the volitional muscle activity of the individual. The results showed that consideration of the volitional muscle activity significantly lowers the energy consumption by the PAFO and FES while providing adaptively assisted ankle motion depending on the volitional muscle activities of the individual. The proposed system has potential use as an assist-as-needed rehabilitation system, where it can improve the outcome of gait rehabilitation by inducing active patient participation depending on the stage of rehabilitation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1272693
JournalFrontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2024 Jung, Bong, Kim and Park.


  • functional electrical stimulation (FES)
  • gait rehabilitation
  • machine learning
  • powered ankle-foot orthosis (PAFO)
  • volitional electromyography (EMG)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Histology
  • Biomedical Engineering


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