The metal cofactors are essential for the function of many enzymes. The host restricts the metal acquisition of pathogens for their immunity and the pathogens have evolved many ways to obtain metal ions for their survival and growth. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium also needs several metal cofactors for its survival, and manganese has been found to contribute to Salmonella pathogenesis. Manganese helps Salmonella withstand oxidative and nitrosative stresses. In addition, manganese affects glycolysis and the reductive TCA, which leads to the inhibition of energetic and biosynthetic metabolism. Therefore, manganese homeostasis is crucial for full virulence of Salmonella. Here, we summarize the current information about three importers and two exporters of manganese that have been identified in Salmonella. MntH, SitABCD, and ZupT have been shown to participate in manganese uptake. mntH and sitABCD are upregulated by low manganese concentration, oxidative stress, and host NRAMP1 level. mntH also contains a Mn2+-dependent riboswitch in its 5′ UTR. Regulation of zupT expression requires further investigation. MntP and YiiP have been identified as manganese efflux proteins. mntP is transcriptionally activated by MntR at high manganese levels and repressed its activity by MntS at low manganese levels. Regulation of yiiP requires further analysis, but it has been shown that yiiP expression is not dependent on MntS. Besides these five transporters, there might be additional transporters that need to be identified.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning [NRF-2022R1A2B5B02002256, NRF-2022R1A4A1025913, and NRF-2020M3A9H5104235 to E.-J.L.] and a grant from Korea University.
© 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Microbiological Society of Korea.
- Manganese homeostasis
- Metal cofactor
- Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium
- Transporter proteins
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology