Manufacturing automation system of freeform concrete formwork using S-LOM method

Joonhyeok Sim, Hakmin Kim, Kyunwoo Park, Chanwoo Kim, Daehie Hong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


The number of freeform buildings has been continuously increasing, serving as a landmark representing a country or a city. However, most of the freeform buildings have been built with conventional construction methods and required a tremendous amount of construction cost. This study seeks to apply additive manufacturing technologies to the freeform concrete formwork. Among many additive manufacturing techniques, the study focuses on the Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM) method because of its advantages on building speed and cost. Also, the LOM technique is modified by using sloped angle at the side surface of the laminated layer (called Sloped-LOM or S-LOM), which yields great increase in the accuracy. We built a new FreeForm Formwork 3D Printer (named F3D printer) using the new approach. The F3D printer consists of a 5-axis laser cutting device for sloped cutting of EPS (Expanded Poly-Styrene) sheets with high speed, an auto pallet changer for EPS feeding, and a palletizer for EPS loading. This paper introduces the S-LOM method and the F3D printer, and the comparisons of the outputs from the conventional method and S-LOM method through actual formwork production.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)43-50
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Jan

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Korean Society for Precision Engineering This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


  • 3D printing
  • Additive manufacturing
  • Freeform concrete formwork
  • Manufacturing automation
  • Rapid prototyping

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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