Materials Quest for Advanced Interconnect Metallization in Integrated Circuits

Jun Hwan Moon, Eunjin Jeong, Seunghyun Kim, Taesoon Kim, Eunsoo Oh, Keun Lee, Hauk Han, Young Keun Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Integrated circuits (ICs) are challenged to deliver historically anticipated performance improvements while increasing the cost and complexity of the technology with each generation. Front-end-of-line (FEOL) processes have provided various solutions to this predicament, whereas the back-end-of-line (BEOL) processes have taken a step back. With continuous IC scaling, the speed of the entire chip has reached a point where its performance is determined by the performance of the interconnect that bridges billions of transistors and other devices. Consequently, the demand for advanced interconnect metallization rises again, and various aspects must be considered. This review explores the quest for new materials for successfully routing nanoscale interconnects. The challenges in the interconnect structures as physical dimensions shrink are first explored. Then, various problem-solving options are considered based on the properties of materials. New materials are also introduced for barriers, such as 2D materials, self-assembled molecular layers, high-entropy alloys, and conductors, such as Co and Ru, intermetallic compounds, and MAX phases. The comprehensive discussion of each material includes state-of-the-art studies ranging from the characteristics of materials by theoretical calculation to process applications to the current interconnect structures. This review intends to provide a materials-based implementation strategy to bridge the gap between academia and industry.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2207321
JournalAdvanced Science
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Aug 15

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Basic Science Research Program of the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education (2021R1A6A3A13046504), Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. (IO210317‐08500‐01), and Samsung Research Funding and Incubation Center of Samsung Electronics (SRFC‐TA1703‐06)

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors. Advanced Science published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.


  • electrical resistivity
  • electromigration
  • integrated circuit
  • interconnect
  • metallization
  • semiconductor
  • size effect

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • General Materials Science
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
  • General Engineering
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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