Meanings of criteria and norms: Analyses and comparisons of ICT literacy competencies of middle school students

Jamee Kim, Wongyu Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


This study focuses on ICT literacy competency that is an essential ability required for living in a modern information-based society. To analyze students' ICT literacy competency levels, the ICT literacy competency of 15,558 Korean middle school students was measured with results indicating that the percentages of excellent level, average level, basic level and below basic level based on the criteria set by experts were 6.3%, 31.4%, 57.7% and 4.5% respectively. In other words, the highest percentage consisted of the basic level. Second, as a result of producing a norm as a national standard for Korea and conducting analyses based on the norm, it was found that 3rd year students in 'small & medium cities' showed the highest level of ICT literacy competency. In relation to ICT literacy competency measured in various countries, this study suggested grounds for measuring the levels against an absolute standard and utilization of criteria for measuring relative levels. That is, this paper suggests that the purpose of a test should be explained clearly when an ICT literacy competency test is conducted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)81-94
Number of pages14
JournalComputers and Education
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by a Korea University Grant .


  • Criteria
  • ICT literacy
  • ICT literacy competency
  • Norm
  • Pedagogical issue

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Computer Science
  • Education


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