Measurements of surgeons' exposure to ionizing radiation dose: Comparison of conventional and mini C-arm fluoroscopy

K. H. Sung, E. Min, C. Y. Chung, B. C. Jo, M. S. Park, K. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


This study was performed to measure the equivalent scattered radiation dose delivered to susceptible organs while simulating orthopaedic surgery using conventional and mini C-arm fluoroscopy. In addition, shielding effects on the thyroid, thymus, and gonad, and the direct exposure delivered to the patient's hands were also compared. A conventional and mini C-arms were installed in an operating room, and a hand and an operator phantom were used to simulate a patient's hand and a surgeon. Photoluminescence dosimeters were used to measure the equivalent dose by scattered radiation arriving at the thyroid, thymus, and gonad on a whole-body phantom in the position of the surgeon. Equivalent scattered radiation doses were measured in four groups: (1) unshielded conventional C-arm group; (2) unshielded mini C-arm group; (3) lead-shielded conventional C-arm group; and (4) lead-shielded mini C-arm group. Equivalent scattered radiation doses to the unshielded group were significantly lower in the mini C-arm group than those in the conventional C-arm group for all organs. The gonad in the lead-shielded conventional C-arm group showed the highest equivalent dose among operator-susceptible organs, and radiation dose was reduced by approximately 96% compared with that in the unshielded group. Scattered radiation was not detected in any susceptible organ in the lead-shielded mini C-arm group. The direct radiation dose to the hand phantom measured from the mini C-arm was significantly lower than that measured from the conventional C-arm. The results show that the equivalent scattered radiation dose to the surgeon's susceptible organs and the direct radiation dose to a patient's hand can be decreased significantly by using a mini C-arm rather than a conventional C-arm. However, protective lead garments, such as a thyroid shield and apron, should be applied to minimize radiation exposure to susceptible organs, even during use of mini C-arm fluoroscopy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)340-345
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Hand Surgery: European Volume
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Mar 1

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The British Society for Surgery of the Hand.


  • Conventional C-arm
  • equivalent dose
  • mini C-arm
  • susceptible organ

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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