Mechanistic insights of 2,4-D sorption onto biochar: Influence of feedstock materials and biochar properties

Sanchita Mandal, Binoy Sarkar, Avanthi Deshani Igalavithana, Yong Sik Ok, Xiao Yang, Enzo Lombi, Nanthi Bolan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

55 Citations (Scopus)


Objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of 2,4-Dichlorophynoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) sorption on biochar in aqueous solutions. Sorption isotherm, kinetics, and desorption experiments were performed to identify the role of biochars’ feedstock and production conditions on 2,4-D sorption. Biochars were prepared from various green wastes (tea, burcucumber, and hardwood) at two pyrolytic temperatures (400 and 700 °C). The tea waste biochar produced at 700 °C was further activated with steam under a controlled flow. The sorption of 2,4-D was strongly dependent on the biochar properties such as specific surface area, surface functional groups, and microporosity. The steam activated biochar produced from tea waste showed the highest (58.8 mg g−1) 2,4-D sorption capacity, which was attributed to the high specific surface area (576 m2 g−1). The mechanism of 2,4-D removal from aqueous solution by biochar is mainly attributed to the formation of heterogeneous sorption sites due to the steam activation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)160-167
Number of pages8
JournalBioresource technology
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Dec

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd


  • 2,4-D
  • Biochar
  • Physical activation
  • Pyrolysis
  • Sorption kinetics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Waste Management and Disposal


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