Sucrose induces flavonoid accumulation in plants as a defense mechanism against various stresses. However, the relationship between the biosynthesis of flavonoids as secondary metabolites and sucrose levels remains unknown. To understand the change in flavonoid biosynthesis by sucrose, we conducted secondary metabolite profiling in Melissa officinalis treated with different levels of sucrose using ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The partial least squares-discriminant and hierarchical clustering analyses showed significant differences in secondary metabolite profiles in M. officinalis at 50, 150, and 300 mM sucrose levels. The levels of 3 flavonoids such as quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucoside, 6-methoxyaromadendrin 3-O-acetate, and 3-hydroxycoumarin and 19 flavonoids including 6-methoxyaromadendrin 3-O-acetate, aureusidin, iridin, flavonol 3-O-(6-O-malonyl-β-d-glucoside) quercetin 3-O-glucoside, and rutin increased at 150 and 300 mM sucrose, respectively, compared to 50 mM sucrose, indicating that the flavonoids were accumulated in M. officinalis by a higher concentration of sucrose. This is the first investigation of the change in individual flavonoids as secondary metabolites in M. officinalis by varying sucrose levels, and the results demonstrate that the sucrose causes the accumulation of certain flavonoids as a defense mechanism against osmotic stress.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Mid-career Researcher Program and Young Researcher Program from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2020R1A2B5B02002631 and NRF-2020R1G1A100826811, respectively). S.K. acknowledges the support of the Research Grant of Jeonju University in 2019. Facility support at the Korea University Food Safety Hall by the Institute of Biomedical Science and Food Safety is also acknowledged.
© 2020 American Chemical Society.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemical Engineering(all)