Objectives: The primary aim of this study is to reveal the effect of particulate matter (PM) on the human middle ear epithelial cell (HMEEC). Methods: The HMEEC was treated with PM (300. μg/ml) for 24. h. Total RNA was extracted and used for microarray analysis. Molecular pathways among differentially expressed genes were further analyzed by using Pathway Studio 9.0 software. For selected genes, the changes in gene expression were confirmed by real-time PCR. Results: A total of 611 genes were regulated by PM. Among them, 366 genes were up-regulated, whereas 245 genes were down-regulated. Up-regulated genes were mainly involved in cellular processes, including reactive oxygen species generation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell differentiation, inflammatory response and immune response. Down-regulated genes affected several cellular processes, including cell differentiation, cell cycle, proliferation, apoptosis and cell migration. A total of 21 genes were discovered as crucial components in potential signaling networks containing 2-fold up regulated genes. Four genes, VEGFA, IL1B, CSF2 and HMOX1 were revealed as key mediator genes among the up-regulated genes. A total of 25 genes were revealed as key modulators in the signaling pathway associated with 2-fold down regulated genes. Four genes, including IGF1R, TIMP1, IL6 and FN1, were identified as the main modulator genes. Conclusions: We identified the differentially expressed genes in PM-treated HMEEC, whose expression profile may provide a useful clue for the understanding of environmental pathophysiology of otitis media. Our work indicates that air pollution, like PM, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of otitis media.
|Number of pages||5|
|Journal||International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology|
|Publication status||Published - 2013 Oct|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as “The Ecoinnovation Project” (412-112-011). This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as “The Environmental Health Action Program” (H113-00136-0002-0).
- Air pollution
- Otitis media
- Particulate matter
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health