Since the identification of the human urinary microbiome, numerous studies have characterized this microbial community and improved our knowledge of its association with urinary diseases. This association between urinary diseases and microbiota is not confined to the urinary microbiota; it is interconnected with the microbiota of other organs. The gastrointestinal, vaginal, kidney, and bladder microbiota all affect urinary diseases because they work with their respective organs to control the growth and opera-tion of the immune, metabolic, and nervous systems through dynamic bidirectional communication along the bladder-centered axis. Therefore, disturbances in the microbial communities may result in the emergence of urinary diseases. In this review, we de-scribe the increasing and intriguing evidence of complicated and critical relationships that may contribute to the development and progression of urinary diseases through disruption of the microbiota in various organs.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea grant (no. NRF-2020R1C1C1003257) and the internal grant of Korea University. Graphical abstract was created with BioRender.com (li-cense number QF251YD8F9).
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea grant (no. NRF-2020R1C1C1003257) and the internal grant of Korea University.
© The Korean Urological Association.
- Host microbial interactions
- Urinary bladder diseases
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