Mixture risk assessment of selected mainstream cigarette smoke constituents generated from low-yield cigarettes in South Korean smokers

Eun Chul Pack, Dae Yong Jang, Hyung Soo Kim, Seung Ha Lee, Hae Young Kim, Seok Ho Song, Hoon Sik Cho, Kyeng Hee Kwon, Kun Ho Park, Kyung Min Lim, Dal Woong Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


A total of 38 hazardous constituents in mainstream cigarette smoke of low-yield cigarettes sold in Korea were selected and analyzed using established methods. Risk calculations were performed using risk algorithms employed in previous studies and Korean population-based exposure parameters. The median cumulative incremental lifetime cancer risk of male smokers could vary from 828 × 10−6 to 2510 × 10−6, and that of female smokers could range from 440 × 10−6 to 1300 × 10−6, depending on the smoking regimens. The median hazard index as the sum of hazard quotients of male smokers varied from 367 to 1,225, and that of female smokers varied from 289 to 970, depending on the smoking regimens. The sensitivity analysis for this risk assessment indicated that the constituent yields in mainstream cigarette smoke, average number of cigarettes smoked per day or year, and mouth-spill rate are the main risk factors. Statistical positive correlations between the average daily dose calculated by the exposure algorithm used in this study for individual smokers and biomarkers verified the reliability of this assessment. It could be concluded that inhalation of the constituents present in the mainstream of low-yield cigarettes has significant cancer and non-cancer health risks, although its effect on risk reduction is still unknown under the fixed machine-smoking conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)152-162
Number of pages11
JournalRegulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Apr

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Research Program funded by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety ( 14182MFDS977 ) and grant from Korea University ( K1605581 ).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018

Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Low-yield cigarette
  • Mainstream smoke chemistry
  • Mixture risk assessment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology


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