Model-Based Complete Enzymatic Production of 3,6-Anhydro- l -galactose from Red Algal Biomass

Duleepa Pathiraja, Saeyoung Lee, In Geol Choi

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9 Citations (Scopus)


3,6-Anhydro-l-galactose (l-AHG) is a bioactive constituent of agar polysaccharides. To be used as a cosmetic or pharmaceutical ingredient, l-AHG is more favorably prepared by enzymatic saccharification of agar using a combination of agarolytic enzymes. Determining the optimum enzyme combination from the natural repertoire is a bottleneck for designing an efficient enzymatic-hydrolysis process. We consider all theoretical enzymatic-saccharification routes in the natural agarolytic pathway of a marine bacterium, Saccharophagus degradans 2-40. Among these routes, three representative routes were determined by removing redundant enzymatic reactions. We simulated each l-AHG production route with simple kinetic models and validated the reaction feasibility with an experimental procedure. The optimal enzyme mixture (with 67.3% maximum saccharification yield) was composed of endotype β-agarase, exotype β-agarase, agarooligosaccharolytic β-galactosidase, and α-neoagarobiose hydrolase. This approach will reduce the time and effort needed for developing a coherent enzymatic process to produce l-AHG on a mass scale.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6814-6821
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of agricultural and food chemistry
Issue number26
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jul 5

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
*E-mail: ORCID In-Geol Choi: 0000-0001-7403-6274 Funding This work was supported by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, Republic of Korea (10052721); the Center for C1 Gas Refinery for National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2015M3D3A1A01064883); and grants from the New and Renewable Energy Core Technology Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) of the Ministry of Trade, Industry 425 and Energy (No. 20173010092460). Notes The authors declare no competing financial interest.

Funding Information:
We would like to thank Professor Kyoung Heon Kim for his invaluable support throughout this study. This study was supported by School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology for BK21 PLUS, Korea University.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 American Chemical Society.


  • 3,6-anhydro- l -galactose
  • agar
  • agarase
  • agarolytic pathway
  • empirical model
  • enzymatic saccharification
  • red algal biomass

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)


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