Moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms are risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in postmenopausal women

Ki Jin Ryu, Hyuntae Park, Yong Jin Kim, Kyong Wook Yi, Jung Ho Shin, Jun Young Hur, Tak Kim

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    7 Citations (Scopus)


    Objective: To evaluate the association between vasomotor symptoms (VMS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in postmenopausal women. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1793 Korean postmenopausal women aged 45–65 years who attended a routine health check at a Korean institution from January 2010 to December 2012. Their scores on the Menopause Rating Scale were used to assess VMS. Moderate to severe VMS included ratings of moderate, severe, and very severe. NAFLD was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound among those who indicated that their ethanol intake was less than 70 g/week. Results: The mean age of these participants was 54.51 ± 4.74 years and the mean duration of menopause was 5.36 ± 4.41 years. A total of 602 (33.6%) women reported mild VMS while 435 (24.3%) reported moderate to severe VMS. The prevalence of NAFLD differed significantly according to the severity of VMS (none, 31.7%; mild, 34.9%; moderate to severe, 39.1%; p = 0.037). Levels of the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase were significantly higher in women with moderate to severe VMS than in those without VMS. Logistic regression analysis revealed that moderate to severe VMS were significantly associated with the risk of NAFLD (OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.10–2.03) after adjusting for age, years since menopause, central obesity, alcohol use, smoking, exercise, and insulin resistance. Conclusions: Moderate to severe VMS are associated with NAFLD and worse liver function profiles in otherwise healthy postmenopausal women. Further longitudinal studies are needed to investigate casual relationships and underlying mechanisms.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)22-28
    Number of pages7
    Publication statusPublished - 2018 Nov

    Bibliographical note

    Funding Information:
    This study was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) ( 2013R1A1A1010044 ) and a Korea University Grant.

    Publisher Copyright:
    © 2018 Elsevier B.V.


    • Hepatic steatosis
    • Hot flashes
    • Menopause
    • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
    • Obesity
    • Vasomotor symptoms

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology
    • Obstetrics and Gynaecology


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