Modified patchwork algorithm: A novel audio watermarking scheme

In Kwon Yeo, Hyoung Joong Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

163 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents the Modified Patchwork Algorithm (MPA), a statistical technique for audio watermarking algorithm in the transform (not only Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), but also DFT and DWT) domain. The MPA is an enhanced version of the conventional patchwork algorithm. The MPA is sufficiently robust to withstand some attacks defined by Secure Digital Music Initiative (SDMI). Experimental results show that the proposed watermarking algorithm is sustainable against compression algorithms such as MP3 and AAC, as well as common signal processing manipulation attacks.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)381-386
Number of pages6
JournalIEEE Transactions on Speech and Audio Processing
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2003 Jul

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Manuscript received September 12, 2001; revised July 11, 2002. This work was supported in part by the Institute of Information Technology Assessment, Korea, under Grant 0700004-1-1 (2000247) and Advanced Information Technology Research Center (AITrc). The associate editor coordinating the review of this manuscript and approving it for publication was Prof. C.-C. Jay Kuo.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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