Molecular phylogeny of Forsythia (Oleaceae) based on chloroplast DNA variation

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10 Citations (Scopus)


Phylogenetic relationships of ten wild species and several cultivars of Forsythia were reconstructed based on the chloroplast (cp) DNA variation. A total of 216 cpDNA variants, 44 of which were potentially phylogenetically informative, was detected using 24 restriction endonucleases. Phylogenetic analysis using Fontanesia and Abeliophyllum as outgroups revealed four well defined species groups in the genus: 1) F. suspensa, 2) F. europaea F. giraldiana, 3) F. ovata - F. japonica - F. viridissima, and 4) F. koreana - F. manshurica - F. saxatilis. The amount of support for each monophyletic group was evaluated by various methods including character number, decay analysis, parsimony bootstrapping, Neighbour-Joining (NJ) bootstrapping, NJ-jackknifing, and the topology-dependent permutation tail probability (T-PTP) test. The data do not support the hybrid origin of F. intermedia from F. suspensa and F. viridissima. The disjunctly distributed European species, F. europaea, was identified as a sister species of the Chinese F. giraldiana and it was probably derived through recent long distance dispersal.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)113-123
Number of pages11
JournalPlant Systematics and Evolution
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 1999
Externally publishedYes


  • Biogeography
  • Chloroplast DNA
  • Clade support analysis
  • Cultivar
  • Forsythia
  • Oleaceae
  • Phylogenetic analysis
  • Restriction site variation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Plant Science


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