Monolithic 3D stacked multiply-accumulate units

Young Seo Lee, Kyung Min Kim, Ji Heon Lee, Young Ho Gong, Seon Wook Kim, Sung Woo Chung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The monolithic 3D stacking (M3D) reduces the critical path delay, leveraging 1) short latency of a monolithic inter-tier via (MIV) and 2) short 2D interconnect and cell delay through smaller footprint. In this paper, we propose M3D stacked multiply-accumulate (MAC) units; MAC units have a relatively large number of long wires. With the Samsung 28 nm ASIC library, the M3D stacked MAC units reduce the critical path delay by up to 28.9%, compared to the conventional 2D structure. In addition, the M3D stacked MAC units reduce dynamic energy and leakage power by up to 9.6% and 21.7%, respectively. Compared to the TSV stacked MAC units, the M3D stacked MAC units consume less dynamic energy and leakage power by up to 37.1% and 73.6%, respectively. Though the 3D stacking technology inevitably causes higher peak temperature than the 2D structure, our thermal results show that the peak temperature of the M3D stacking is always lower than that of the TSV-based 3D stacking. Furthermore, when the size of the MAC unit is optimized in convolutional neural network (CNN) applications, the peak temperature of the M3D stacking is 88.3 °C at most, which is still under the threshold temperature.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)183-189
Number of pages7
JournalIntegration, the VLSI Journal
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jan

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), South Korea grant funded by the Korea government ( MSIT ) (No. 2017R1A2B2002930 , 2020R1A2C2003500 ), Nano Material Technology Development Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), South Korea funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (MSIP) (No. 2015M3A7B7045470 , 2016M3A7B4910430 ), Samsung Electronics, South Korea , and Korea University, South Korea . We would also like to thank Young Min Shin and Jong-Woo Kim from Samsung Electronics for their help with providing experimental environment. Sung Woo Chung is the corresponding author of this paper.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier B.V.


  • ASIC
  • M3D stacking
  • Multiply-accumulate
  • TSV-Based 3D stacking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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