Mood and Anxiety Disorders among Rural, Urban, and Metropolitan Residents in the United States

Chamberlain C. Diala, Carles Muntaner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To estimate the correlates of mood and anxiety disorders among rural, urban and metropolitan residents in the United States. Methods: We analyzed the National Co-morbidity Survey (NCS), which yields the distribution and correlates of psychiatric disorders in a probability sample of U.S. population using DSM-III-R for diagnosis. Logistic regressions of mood and anxiety disorders were stratified by geographical area. Results: We found gender differences in mood disorders among urban (O.R. = 1.8, P < 0.0001) and metropolitan (O.R. = 1.6, P < 0.0001) but not among rural residents. Rural (O.R. = 0.2, P < 0.05) and urban (O.R. = 0.5, P < 0.05) African Americans were less likely to report mood disorders compared to rural and urban Whites. Similarly, we found gender differences in anxiety disorders among urban (O.R. = 2.0, P < 0.0001) and metropolitan (O.R. = 1.7, P < 0.0001), but not among rural residents. Conclusion: Rural men reported more mood and anxiety disorders than urban men, thus erasing expected rural gender differences in these disorders. Rural male mood and anxiety disorders may be a function of diminishing resources (steady, high paying jobs) or increasing financial strain particularly among Whites, who comprise a majority of rural residents.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)239-252
Number of pages14
JournalCommunity Mental Health Journal
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2003 Jun


  • Anxiety disorder
  • Gender
  • Mood disorder
  • Occupational class
  • Rural
  • Wealth

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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