The discrimination learning of multiple odors, in which multi-odor can be associated with different responses, is important for responding quickly and accurately to changes in the external environment. However, very few studies have been done on multi-odor discrimination by animal sniffing. Herein, we report a novel multi-odor discrimination system by detection rats based on the combination of 2-Choice and Go/No-Go (GNG) tasks into a single paradigm, in which the Go response of GNG was replaced by 2-Choice, for detection of toluene and acetone, which are odor indicators of lung cancer and diabetes, respectively. Three of six trained rats reached performance criterion, in 12 consecutive successful tests within a given set or over 12 sets with a success rate of over 90%. Through a total of 1300 tests, the trained animals (N = 3) showed multi-odor sensing performance with 88% accuracy, 87% sensitivity and 90% specificity. In addition, a dependence of behavior response time on odor concentrations under given concentration conditions was observed, suggesting that the system could be used for quantitative measurements. Furthermore, the animals’ multi-odor sensing performance has lasted for 45 days, indicating long-term stability of the learned multi-odor discrimination. These findings demonstrate that multi-odor discrimination can be achieved by rat sniffing, potentially providing insight into the rapid, accurate and cost-effective multi-odor monitoring in the lung cancer and diabetes.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Acknowledgments: This work was equally supported by the BioNano Health-Guard Research Center as Global Frontier Project (H-GUARD 2016941340), the Bio & Medical Technology Development Program of the National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science & ICT (2021M3A9I5021439) and the Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB) Initiative Research Program (KGM9952112).
Funding: This research was funded by the BioNano Health-Guard Research Center as Global Frontier Project [H-GUARD 2016941340], the Bio & Medical Technology Development Program of the National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science & ICT [2021M3A9I5021439] and the Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB) Initiative Research Program [KGM9952112].
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- Animal biosensor
- Multi-odor discrimination
- Olfactory behavior
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry
- Information Systems
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering