Multi-Step Enzymatic Production and Purification of 2-Keto-3-Deoxy-Galactonate from Red-Macroalgae-Derived Agarose

Sora Yu, So Young Park, Dong Hyun Kim, Eun Ju Yun, Kyoung Heon Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


2-keto-3-deoxy sugar acids, which have potential as precursors in medicinal compound production, have gained attention in various fields. Among these acids, 2-keto-3-deoxy-L-galactonate (KDGal) has been biologically produced from D-galacturonate originating from plant-derived pectin. KDGal is also found in the catabolic pathway of 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose (AHG), the main component of red-algae-derived agarose. AHG is converted to 3,6-anhydrogalactonate by AHG dehydrogenase and subsequently isomerized to KDGal by 3,6-anhydrogalactonate cycloisomerase. Therefore, we used the above-described pathway to produce KDGal from agarose. Agarose was depolymerized to AHG and to agarotriose (AgaDP3) and agaropentaose (AgaDP5), both of which have significantly higher molecular weights than AHG. When only AHG was converted to KDGal, AgaDP3 and AgaDP5 remained unreacted. Finally, KDGal was effectively purified from the enzymatic products by size-exclusion chromatography based on the differences in molecular weights. These results show that KDGal can be enzymatically produced and purified from agarose for use as a precursor to high-value products.

Original languageEnglish
Article number288
JournalMarine drugs
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2022 May

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by the Mid-career Researcher Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (2020R1A2B5B02002631) and by the Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries, funded by the Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs (32136-05-1-SB010). This work was also supported by the Korea University Food Safety Hall for the Institute of Biomedical Science and Food Safety and by a Korea University Grant. The article processing charge was supported by an LG Chem grant.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • 2-keto-3-deoxy sugar acid
  • 2-keto-3-deoxy-L-galactonate
  • 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose
  • agarose
  • keto-deoxy-sugar
  • red algae

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics (miscellaneous)


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