Multiple Switching Modes of NiOxMemristors for Memory-Driven Multifunctional Device Applications

Young Ran Park, Haein Cho, Gunuk Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Multiple building components with a variety of switching capabilities are required to implement memory-driven parallel computing architecture and multifunctional device applications. In this regard, there is a high demand for implementing multiple switching modes based on only one active material in a simple device form. In this study, we demonstrated the ability of a solution-processable two-terminal Ag (or Al)/NiOx/ITO memristor that exhibits triple-switching characteristics depending on the different voltage regimes. Notably, the device exhibits an analog bipolar switching behavior under a low programming voltage (≤1.0 V), enabling essential synaptic functions, as well as a high recognition accuracy of 87.42% in a single-layer neural network. After the electroforming process to form the oxygen vacancy-based conductive filament in the NiOxlayer, the device concurrently exhibited digital bipolar switching and unipolar threshold switching behaviors at different voltage regimes without compliance current. These three switching characteristics are related to the transition of dominant switching mechanisms depending on the operating scheme, which is investigated using various material and chemical characterization techniques during switching, including cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3739-3748
Number of pages10
JournalACS Applied Electronic Materials
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jul 26


  • analog bipolar switching
  • digital bipolar switching
  • NiOmemristor
  • synaptic functions
  • unipolar threshold switching

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Electrochemistry


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