N quantum channels are sufficient for Multi-user Quantum Key Distribution protocol between n users

Chang Ho Hong, Jin O. Heo, Gyong Luck Khym, Jongin Lim, Suc Kyung Hong, Hyung Jin Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) protocols enable two parties to communicate in a secret manner. As it is necessary that there be a quantum channel between two users, n (n - 1) / 2 quantum channels are required for a QKD system of n users. We here propose a Multi-user Quantum Key Distribution protocol that utilizes entanglement swapping and by which only n quantum channels are needed for a communication system of n users. Any two among n users of the system can communicate with each other, even though there is no direct quantum channel between them. This is possible because entanglement swapping entangles the quantum states of the two users, establishing a quantum connection between them. Hence n quantum channels are sufficient for communication between n users. Furthermore, Trent, who performs entanglement swapping, has no way to fraudulently intervene in or eavesdrop on the communication between two users.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2644-2646
Number of pages3
JournalOptics Communications
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Jun 15

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the MIC (Ministry of Information and Communication) , Korea, under the ITRC (Information Technology Research Center) support program supervised by the IITA (Institute of Information Technology Advancement) (IITA-2006-(C1090-0603-0025)) and the research foundation of Korea University , Grant No. K0717511 .


  • Entanglement swapping
  • Quantum Key Distribution
  • Quantum communication

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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