Nanofiber garlands of polycaprolactone by electrospinning

D. H. Reneker, W. Kataphinan, A. Theron, E. Zussman, A. L. Yarin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

212 Citations (Scopus)


Over a period of time, the typical path of a single jet of polymer solution, in the electrospinning process follows the nearly straight electric field lines for a certain distance away from the tip, and then develops a series of electrically driven bending instabilities that cause the path of the jet to explore a cone shaped envelope as the jet elongates and dries into a nanofiber. The multitudes of open loops that are formed are rarely observed to come into contact with each other until the dry nanofiber is collected at the end of the process. A new phenomenon is reported in this paper. Electrospinning a solution of polycaprolactone in acetone caused the dramatic appearance of a fluffy, columnar network of fibers that moved slowly in large loops and long curves. The name 'garland' was given to the columnar network. Open loops of the single jet came into contact just after the onset of the bending instability and then merged into a cross-linked network that created and maintained the garland. Contacts between loops occurred when the plane of some of the leading loops of the jet rotated around a radius of the loop. Then a small following loop, expanding in a different plane, intersected a leading loop that was as many as several turns ahead. Mechanical forces overcame the repulsive forces from the charge carried by the jet, the open loops in flight made contact and merged at the contact point, to form closed loops. The closed loops constrained the motion to form a fluffy network that stretched and became a long roughly cylindrical column a few millimeters in diameter. This garland, which was electrically charged, developed a path of large open loops that are characteristic of a large-scale electrically driven bending instability. Over a long period of time, the fluffy garland never traveled outside a conical envelope similar to, but larger than the conical envelope associated with the bending instability of a single jet.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6785-6794
Number of pages10
Issue number25
Publication statusPublished - 2002 Oct 28


  • Biodegradable nanofibers
  • Electrospinning
  • Polycaprolactone nanofiber

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Organic Chemistry
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Materials Chemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Nanofiber garlands of polycaprolactone by electrospinning'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this