Nanomaterial designing strategies related to cell lysosome and their biomedical applications: A review

Bhowmira Rathore, Kyoung Sunwoo, Paramesh Jangili, Jiseon Kim, Ji Hyeon Kim, Meina Huang, Jia Xiong, Amit Sharma, Zhigang Yang, Junle Qu, Jong Seung Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

73 Citations (Scopus)


Lysosomes, an important organelle of eukaryotic cells, are covered with the cell membrane and contain an array of degradative enzymes. The disrupt in lysosomal functions may lead to the development of severe diseases. In nanotechnology, nanomaterials working mechanism and its biomedical output are highly dependent on the lysosomes as it plays a crucial role in intracellular transport. Several nanomaterials specifically designed for lysosome-related actions are highly advantageous in trafficking and delivering the loaded imaging/therapeutic agents. But for other applications, especially gene-based therapeutic delivery into the sub-organelles such as mitochondria and nucleus, lysosomal related degradation could be an obstacle to achieve a maximal therapeutic index. In order to understand the relationship between lysosomes and designed nanomaterials for kind of desired application in biomedical research, complete knowledge of their various designing strategies, size dependent or ligand supportive cellular uptake mechanisms, trafficking, and localizations in eukaryotic cells is highly desired. In this review, we intended to discuss various nanomaterial types that have been applied in biomedical applications based on lysosomal internalization and escape from endo/lysosomes and explored their related advantages/disadvantages. Additionally, we also deliberated nanomaterials direct translocation mechanism, their autophagic accumulation and the underlying mechanism to induced autophagy. Finally, some challenges and critical issues in current research from clinical application perspective has also been addressed. Great understanding of these factors will help in understanding and facilitating the development of safe and effective lysosomal related nanomaterial-based imaging/therapeutic systems for future applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25-47
Number of pages23
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Aug


  • Autophagy
  • Diagnosis
  • Endocytosis/non-endocyotic
  • Lyososome
  • Nanomaterial
  • Therapeutics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Bioengineering
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biomaterials
  • Mechanics of Materials


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