Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-based eyes-closed brain-computer interface (BCI) using prefrontal cortex activation due to mental arithmetic

Jaeyoung Shin, Klaus R. Müller, Han Jeong Hwang

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56 Citations (Scopus)


We propose a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) that can be operated in eyes-closed (EC) state. To evaluate the feasibility of NIRS-based EC BCIs, we compared the performance of an eye-open (EO) BCI paradigm and an EC BCI paradigm with respect to hemodynamic response and classification accuracy. To this end, subjects performed either mental arithmetic or imagined vocalization of the English alphabet as a baseline task with very low cognitive loading. The performances of two linear classifiers were compared; resulting in an advantage of shrinkage linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The classification accuracy of EC paradigm (75.6 ± 7.3%) was observed to be lower than that of EO paradigm (77.0 ± 9.2%), which was statistically insignificant (p = 0.5698). Subjects reported they felt it more comfortable (p = 0.057) and easier (p < 0.05) to perform the EC BCI tasks. The different task difficulty may become a cause of the slightly lower classification accuracy of EC data. From the analysis results, we could confirm the feasibility of NIRS-based EC BCIs, which can be a BCI option that may ultimately be of use for patients who cannot keep their eyes open consistently.

Original languageEnglish
Article number36203
JournalScientific reports
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Nov 8

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This Research was supported by a grant (#S0144-15-1007) from Gyungbuk Software Convergence Cluster Project funded by MSIP(Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning) and NIPA(National IT Industry Promotion Agency), by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry (NRF-2014R1A6A3A03057524), and by the Brain Korea21 PLUS Program through the NRF funded by the Ministry of Sciences, ICT & Future Planning.

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2016.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

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