Neuro-Symbolic Word Embedding Using Textual and Knowledge Graph Information

Dongsuk Oh, Jungwoo Lim, Heuiseok Lim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The construction of high-quality word embeddings is essential in natural language processing. In existing approaches using a large text corpus, the word embeddings learn only sequential patterns in the context; thus, accurate learning of the syntax and semantic relationships between words is limited. Several methods have been proposed for constructing word embeddings using syntactic information. However, these methods are not trained for the semantic relationships between words in sentences or external knowledge. In this paper, we present a method for improved word embeddings using symbolic graphs for external knowledge and the relationships of the syntax and semantic role between words in sentences. The proposed model sequentially learns two symbolic graphs with different properties through a graph convolutional network (GCN) model. A new symbolic graph representation is generated to understand sentences grammatically and semantically. This graph representation includes comprehensive information that combines dependency parsing and semantic role labeling. Subsequently, word embeddings are constructed through the GCN model. The same GCN model initializes the word representations that are created in the first step and trains the relationships of ConceptNet using the relationships between words. The proposed word embeddings outperform the baselines in benchmarks and extrinsic tasks.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9424
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Oct

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by an Institute of Information & communications Technology Planning & Evaluation (IITP) grant, funded by the Korean government Ministry of Science and ICT (MSIT) (No. 2020-0-00368, A Neural-Symbolic Model for Knowledge Acquisition and Inference Techniques) and by the MSIT, Korea, under the ICT Creative Consilience program (IITP-2022-2020-0-01819) supervised by the IITP. Furthermore, this research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2021R1A6A1A03045425).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.


  • ConceptNet
  • dependency parsing
  • external knowledge
  • graph convolutional network
  • neuro-symbolic
  • semantic role labeling
  • word embedding

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Instrumentation
  • Engineering(all)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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