NMR-based metabolic profiling and differentiation of ginseng roots according to cultivation ages

Seung Ok Yang, Yoo Soo Shin, Sun Hee Hyun, Sayeon Cho, Kyong Hwan Bang, Dongho Lee, Seung Phill Choi, Hyung Kyoon Choi

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108 Citations (Scopus)


Ginseng is an important herbal resource worldwide, and the adulteration or falsification of cultivation age has been a serious problem in the commercial market. In this study, ginseng (Panax ginseng) roots, which were cultivated for 2-6years under GAP standard guidelines, were analyzed by NMR-based metabolomic techniques using two solvents. At first, ginseng root samples were extracted with 50% methanol, and analyzed by NMR with D 2O as the NMR dissolution solvent. The 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5/6-year-old ginseng root samples were separated in PLS-DA-derived score plots. However, 5- and 6-year-old ginseng roots were not separated by the solvent system. Therefore, various solvents were tested to differentiate the 5- and 6-year-old ginseng root samples, and 100% methanol-d 4 was chosen as the direct extraction and NMR dissolution solvent. In the PLS model using data from the 100% methanol-d 4 solvent, 5- and 6-year-old ginseng roots were clearly separated, and the model was validated using internal and external data sets. The obtained RMSEE and RMSEP values suggested that the PLS model has strong predictability for discriminating the age of 5- and 6-years-old ginseng roots. The present study suggests that the age of ginseng could be successfully predicted using two solvents, and the developed method in this study can be used as a standard protocol for discriminating and predicting the ages of ginseng root samples.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)19-26
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Jan 25

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by a grant from the BioGreen 21 Program (No. 20070501034007), Rural Development Administration , Republic of Korea .


  • Ginseng
  • Metabolomics
  • NMR
  • NMR solvent
  • Panax ginseng

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Spectroscopy
  • Clinical Biochemistry


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