Non-flammable electrolytes based on a fluorine-free salt for safe and high-voltage lithium metal batteries

Thuy Duong Pham, Abdullah Bin Faheem, Junam Kim, Kyungwon Kwak, Kyung Koo Lee

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Lithium nitrate (LiNO3) is the preferred additive for achieving high efficiencies with improved lithium deposition morphologies due to its ability to form stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layers. However, LiNO3 is not employed as its pure salt owing to its low solubility in common organic solvents. Here, we propose a non-flammable electrolyte (NF-LiNO3/GBL) consisting of LiNO3 in γ-butyrolactone (GBL), wherein functional additives such as pentafluoro(phenoxy)cyclotriphosphazene (FPPN) and vinylene carbonate (VC) are added as a flame retardant and the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI)/cathode electrolyte interphase (CEI)-forming additive, respectively. Due to the strong interactions between Li+ and NO3 in the GBL, contact ion pairs and aggregates are the dominant ionic species even at a concentration of 0.8 M. Experimental and computational investigations demonstrated that the combination of LiNO3, GBL, FPPN, and VC forms SEI/CEI layers that are rich in conductive inorganic species, which can ultimately enhance the interfacial stability at the anode/cathode. The Li||Cu cells based on NF-LiNO3/GBL electrolyte exhibited a high average Coulombic efficiency of 98.3%, and Li||LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 (4.3 V) cell based on NF-LiNO3/GBL maintained excellent capacity retention of 90% after 200 cycles. This work provides a promising non-flammable electrolyte for the production of safe and high-energy-density rechargeable lithium metal batteries.

Original languageEnglish
Article number142496
JournalElectrochimica Acta
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Aug 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education ( NRF-2020R1I1A3066503 and NRF-2022R1I1A1A01063600 ), and Gunsan City, Korea, under the Human Resources Program for the EV industrial cluster.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier Ltd


  • Ester-based electrolyte
  • High-voltage
  • Lithium nitrate
  • Non-flammable electrolyte
  • Pentafluoro(phenoxy)cyclotriphosphazene

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Electrochemistry


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