Nongrouted ratio evaluation of rock bolts by reflection of guided ultrasonic waves

Jung Doung Yu, Myeong Ho Bae, In Mo Lee, Jong Sub Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


The objective of this study is to develop and apply reflection methods for guided ultrasonic waves used in evaluating the grout condition of rock bolts installed in a rock mass. Three types of rock bolts with different grouting ratios are prepared. First, piezoelectric disk elements are used as the source of guided ultrasonic waves to investigate grouted nonembedded rock bolts. Second, reflection methods with piezo disk elements and hammer impacts are used with rock bolts embedded in concrete columns. Third, a hammer impact with a center punch is applied for investigating rock bolts embedded in a rock mass in the field. The measured guided waves were analyzed using wavelet transforms. The peak magnitudes of the wavelet transform are used for group velocity calculations. Although piezo disk elements are sufficient as sources for nonembedded rock bolts and rock bolts installed in concrete columns, they do not provide sufficient energy in the field. However, a hammer impact with a center punch can generate guided ultrasonic waves with enough energy to evaluate the nongrouted ratio in rock bolts embedded in a rock mass. The group velocities of the guided ultrasonic waves increase with increasing nongrouted ratio. This study demonstrates that the suggested hammer impact method is effective for evaluating the nongrouted ratio of rock bolts in the field.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)298-307
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • Group velocity; Guided ultrasonic waves
  • Nongrouted ratio
  • Reflection method
  • Rock bolts
  • Transmission method
  • Wavelet transform.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Environmental Science(all)


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