Nonhalogenated Solvent-Processed High-Performance Indoor Photovoltaics Made of New Conjugated Terpolymers with Optimized Monomer Compositions

Su Hong Park, Na Yeon Kwon, Hyung Jong Kim, Eunbin Cho, Hungu Kang, Amit Kumar Harit, Han Young Woo, Hyo Jae Yoon, Min Ju Cho, Dong Hoon Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Conjugated random terpolymers, PJ-25, PJ-50, and PJ-75 were successfully synthesized from three different monomers. Fluorine-substituted benzotriazole (2F-BTA) was incorporated into 4,8-bis(4-chlorothiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene (BDT-T-Cl) and a 1,3-bis(4-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)-5,7-bis(2-alkyl)benzo[1,2-c:4,5-c′]dithiophene-4,8-dione (BDD)-based alternating copolymer PM7 as a third monomeric unit. The solubility of the random terpolymers in nonhalogenated solvents increased with the number of 2F-BTA units in PM7. The random terpolymers were mixed with 3,9-bis(2-methylene-((3-(1,1-dicyanomethylene)-6,7-difluoro)-indanone))-5,5,11,11-tetrakis(4-hexylphenyl)-dithieno[2,3-d:2′,3′-d′]-s-indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b′]dithiophene (IT-4F) to fabricate organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. Among the three terpolymers and two related binary copolymers (e.g., PM7 and J52-Cl), outdoor photovoltaic (PV) cells (AM 1.5G) based on the PJ-50:IT-4F blend showed a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 11.34%. In addition, PJ-50 was employed as a donor in indoor PV (IPV) cells and was blended with nonfullerene acceptors, which have different absorption ranges. Among them, the PJ-50:IT-4F-based IPV device had the highest PCE of 17.41% with a Jsc of 54.75 μA cm-2 and an FF of 0.77 under 160 μW cm-2 light-emitting diode (LED) light. The terpolymer introduced in this study can be regarded as a promising material for the fabrication of outdoor PV and IPV cells with excellent performance involving the use of an eco-friendly solvent.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13487-13498
Number of pages12
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Mar 24

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2017K1A3A1A05069766, 2019R1A2C2011003, 2019R1A2C2002647, 2019R1A6A1A11044070, and 2020R1I1A1A01066897). The authors are grateful to the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (Pohang, Korea) for allowing us to conduct the grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray diffraction measurements (GIWAXD) and the Institute for Basic Science (IBS, Korea) for allowing us to obtain nuclear magnetic resonance data (NMR; Ascend 500, Bruker).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 American Chemical Society.


  • indoor photovoltaics
  • morphology
  • non-halogenated solvent process
  • polymer solar cells
  • random terpolymer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)


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