Nonmotor Symptoms and Cognitive Decline in de novo Parkinson's Disease

Kyum Yil Kwon, Sung Hoon Kang, Minjik Kim, Hye Mi Lee, Ji Wan Jang, Ju Yeon Kim, Seon Min Lee, Seong Beom Koh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Cognitive impairments are common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite its clinical importance, the development of dementia is still difficult to predict. In this study, we investigated the possible associations between non-motor symptoms and the risk of developing dementia within a 2-year observation period in PD. Methods: A total of 80 patients with PD participated in this study. Nonmotor symptoms (the Nonmotor Symptoms Questionnaire), PD status (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale), depression (Geriatric d Depression Scale or Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale), stereopsis and severity of nonmotor symptoms (Non-motor symptoms scale) were assessed. Global cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination) were evaluated at baseline and 2 years later. Results: Presence of depression, vivid dreaming, REM sleep behavior disorders, hyposmia, abnormal stereopsis, non-smoking and postural instability/gait disturbance phenotype were associated with a significantly more rapid decline of Mini-Mental State Examination. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that depression (odds ratio=13.895), abnormal stereopsis (odds ratio=10.729), vivid dreaming (odds ratio=4.16), REM sleep behavior disorders (odds ratio=5.353) and hyposmia (odds ratio=4.911) were significant independent predictors of dementia risk within 2 years. Postural instability/gait disturbance phenotype and age >62 years were also independent predictors of dementia risk (odd ratio=38.333, odds ratio=10.625). Conclusions: We suggest that depression, vivid dreaming, REM sleep behavior disorders, hyposmia and abnormal stereopsis are closely associated with cognitive decline, and that presence of these nonmotor symptoms predict the subsequent development of Parkinson's disease dementia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)597-602
Number of pages6
JournalCanadian Journal of Neurological Sciences
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Oct 20
Externally publishedYes


  • Nonmotor symptoms
  • Parkinson's disease
  • dementia
  • depression
  • hyposmia
  • stereopsis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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