Novel connections and gaps in ethylene signaling from the ER membrane to the nucleus

Young Hee Cho, Sang Dong Yoo

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    36 Citations (Scopus)


    The signaling of the plant hormone ethylene has been studied genetically, resulting in the identification of signaling components from membrane receptors to nuclear effectors. Among constituents of the hormone signaling pathway, functional links involving a putative mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 (CTR1) and a membrane transporter-like protein ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2) have been missing for a long time. We now learn that EIN2 is cleaved and its C-terminal end moves to the nucleus upon ethylene perception at the membrane receptors, and then the C-terminal end of EIN2 in the nucleus supports EIN3-dependent ethylene-response gene expression. CTR1 kinase activity negatively controls the EIN2 cleavage process through direct phosphorylation. Despite the novel connection of CTR1 with EIN2 that explains a large portion of the missing links in ethylene signaling, our understanding still remains far from its completion. This focused review will summarize recent advances in the EIN3-dependent ethylene signaling mechanisms including CTR1-EIN2 functions with respect to EIN3 regulation and ethylene responses. This will also present several emerging issues that need to be addressed for the comprehensive understanding of signaling pathways of the invaluable plant hormone ethylene.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number733
    JournalFrontiers in Plant Science
    Issue numberJAN
    Publication statusPublished - 2015 Jan 5

    Bibliographical note

    Publisher Copyright:
    © 2015 Cho and Yoo.


    • CTR1
    • EIN2
    • EIN3
    • Ethylene
    • MAPkinasekinaseKinase
    • Signaling

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Plant Science


    Dive into the research topics of 'Novel connections and gaps in ethylene signaling from the ER membrane to the nucleus'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this