The importance of oats has increased because of their high nutritional value and health benefits in the human diet. High-temperature stress during the reproductive growth period has a detrimental effect on grain morphology by changing the structure and concentration of several seed-storage proteins. DA1, a conserved ubiquitin-proteasome pathway component, plays an important role in regulating grain size by controlling cell proliferation in maternal integuments during the grain-filling stage. However, there have been no reports or studies on oat DA1 genes. In this study, we identified three DA1-like genes (AsDA1-2D, AsDA1-5A, and AsDA1-1D) using genome-wide analysis. Among these, AsDA1-2D was found to be responsible for high-temperature stress tolerance via a yeast thermotolerance assay. The physical interaction of AsDA1-2D with oat-storage-globulin (AsGL-4D) and a protease inhibitor (AsPI-4D) was observed using yeast two-hybrid screening. A subcellular localization assay revealed that AsDA1-2D and its interacting proteins are localized in the cytosol and plasma membrane. An in vitro pull-down assay showed that AsDA1-2D forms a complex with both AsPI-4D and AsGL-4D. An in vitro cell-free degradation assay showed that AsGL-4D was degraded by AsDA1-2D under high-temperature conditions and that AsPI-4D inhibited the function of AsDA1-2D. These results suggest that AsDA1-2D acts as a cysteine protease and negatively regulates oat-grain-storage-globulin under heat stress.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was funded by the Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science & Technology Development ( PJ015705 ), funded by the Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea . This research was supported by a grant from Korea University, Republic of Korea .
- Grain-filling period
- High-temperature stress
- Protease inhibitor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Plant Science