Obesity phenotype and cardiovascular changes

Juri Park, Seong H. Kim, Goo Yeong Cho, Inkyung Baik, Nan H. Kim, Hong E. Lim, Eung J. Kim, Chang G. Park, Sang Y. Lim, Yong H. Kim, Hyun Kim, Seung K. Lee, Chol Shin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: Healthy obese phenotype with favorable metabolic profiles is proposed. However, whether healthy obesity leads to target organ changes is controversial. We investigated the impact of a healthy obesity on cardiovascular structure and function. Methods: A total of 2540 participants without known cardiovascular disease were enrolled. According to BMI and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) component, the participants were divided into six groups: healthy (none of five MetS components) normal weight (BMI <23kg/m), unhealthy (one or more of five MetS components) normal weight, healthy overweight (BMI 23-24.9kg/m), unhealthy overweight, healthy obesity (BMI 25kg/m), and unhealthy obesity. The cardiovascular changes were assessed by echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), carotid ultrasonography, and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Results: In a multivariate analysis after adjusting for age, sex, heart rate, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and medication for hypertension and diabetes mellitus, the unhealthy overweight and obese groups showed statistically significant changes in the left ventricular mass index, mitral E/A ratio, E/Ea ratio, TDI Ea velocity, common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT), and brachial-ankle PWV (P<0.001), compared with the healthy normal weight individuals. In the healthy overweight and obese groups, CCA-IMT and brachial-ankle PWV values were similar, but left-ventricular mass index and TDI Ea velocity were significantly different (P<0.001). Conclusion:: Healthy obesity was associated with subtle changes in left ventricular structure and function. These data provide evidence that metabolically healthy phenotypes with excess weight may not be a benign condition.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1765-1772
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Hypertension
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Sept


  • arterial stiffness
  • carotid intima-media thickness
  • echocardiography
  • left ventricle
  • metabolic syndrome
  • obesity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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