Long-term exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds in beauty products may adversely impact the health of beauty salon technicians. Previous studies have focused on assessing indoor air concentrations of chemicals, such as benzene and toluene, and not on personal exposure concentrations. This study measured the indoor and personal exposure concentrations of VOCs and carbonyl compounds in fifty-three beauty salons in Korea. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks and sensitivity were analyzed using the Monte Carlo simulation technique. The indoor and personal exposure concentrations of acetone were 82.24 µg/m3 and 104.97 µg/m3, respectively, the highest among all measured chemicals. Beauty salon technicians who experienced adverse health effects had significantly higher concentrations of acetone, benzaldehyde, and toluene than those who did not experience adverse health effects (p-value < 0.05). The average hazard quotients of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were higher than the acceptable risk level (1), and the average cancer risks of formaldehyde exceeded the acceptable risk level (10−6). Wearing personal protective equipment was the most efficient risk reduction strategy for reducing the non-cancer risks of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde and the carcinogenic risks of formaldehyde. The results of this study can be used as a basis for reducing exposure to VOCs and carbonyl compounds among salon technicians.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by Ministry of Environment as "the Graduate school of Particulate matter specialization” and Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education ( NRF-2021R1A6A3A01088686 and NRF-2021R1F1A1064097 ).
© 2023 The Authors
- Carbonyl compounds
- Health risk assessment
- Indoor air quality
- Occupational exposure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis