On the Road to Stable Electrochemical Metal Deposition in Multivalent Batteries

Eun Seo Lee, Sung Ho Huh, Si Hwan Lee, Seung Ho Yu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Li, Na, and K metal anodes are the most promising anodes for post Li ion batteries because of their low redox potential and high specific capacity. However, alkali metals suffer from dendritic metal growth and high market price, which hinder the commercialization of alkali metal anode batteries. For this reason, multivalent metal anodes, such as Mg, Ca, and Al, are considered alternatives to alkali metal anodes, due to their uniform, less dendritic metal growth and abundance in the Earth’s crust. Furthermore, multivalent metal deposition/stripping reactions require two or more electrons, which enable their high volumetric capacity. Recent metal anode research has been focused on unveiling this fractal dendrite deposition mechanism and inhibiting dendritic deposition. However, most studies are fundamentally conducted based on the known dendritic Li growth mechanism, which is not yet fully understood. In this review, we focus on the metal deposition mechanism of these individual multivalent metals. Moreover, we present strategies for inhibiting dendritic growth of each metal anode. By comparing the different dendritic growth characteristics of different metal elements, we believe this review will provide a clear direction for comprehensive metal anode research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2014-2032
Number of pages19
JournalACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Feb 13

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 American Chemical Society.


  • Dendritic growth suppression
  • Dendritic metal growth
  • Electrolyte
  • Morphology
  • Multivalent metal batteries

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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