Optimal β-galactosidases for producing high-titer 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose from red-algal agarobiose

Dong Hyun Kim, So Young Park, Kyoung Heon Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Abstract: 3,6-Anhydro-L-galactose (L-AHG) is a monomeric sugar in agarose derived from red macroalgae. Owing to its various physiological activities such as anti-inflammation, moisturizing, skin whitening, anti-colon cancer, and anti-cariogenicity, L-AHG is a potential functional ingredient. In our previous study, a simple and efficient two-step L-AHG production process was designed for high-titer L-AHG production, where a single enzyme was used after the liquefaction of agarose by acid prehydrolysis. However, the enzyme used did not completely hydrolyze agarobiose (AB). Therefore, in this study, for the efficient hydrolysis of AB and the high-titer production of L-AHG, various β-galactosidases belonging to glycoside hydrolase families 1, 2, 35, and 42 were compared by testing their substrate specificities and kinetic parameters. Among the five β-galactosidases, Bga42A, originating from Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis ATCC 15,697, showed the highest substrate specificity. Consequently, the two-step process utilizing Bga42A as a single enzyme resulted in a high-titer production of L-AHG at 85.9 g/L, demonstrating the feasibility of producing L-AHG from agarose. Key points: • L-AHG derived from red macroalgae has various physiological activities. • Various β-galactosidases were evaluated to efficiently hydrolyze agarobiose. • Bga42A showed the highest substrate specificity against agarobiose. • The highest amount of L-AHG with 85.9 g/L was simply produced. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8111-8120
Number of pages10
JournalApplied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Dec

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
KHK acknowledges financial support from the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (20018132) and the Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries funded by the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (32136–05-1-SB010). DHK acknowledges financial support from the National Research Foundation of Korea (2020R1C1C1008196). This study was also supported by the Korea University Food Safety Hall for the Institute of Biomedical Science and Food Safety and by a Korea University Grant.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


  • 3,6-Anhydro-L-galactose
  • Agarobiose
  • Agarobiose hydrolase
  • Agarose
  • β-galactosidase, Bga42A, Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis, Red macroalgae

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology


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